EMS Technical Tips

Gold Tracers

Detailed information is provided on the package inserts.

In order to obtain a positive reaction when using these tracers the following should be kept in mind:

  1. charge interactions are influenced by the presence of ions, di- and trivalent ions being of more influence than univalent ions. The influence is concentration dependent. Binding is stronger in low ionic-strength media.
  2. charge interactions are influenced by pH. The charge of components in the specimen is dependent of their isoëlectric point, below the IEP the charge is positive, above the IEP negative. Significant binding will only occur at a pH at least one to two pH-units higher or lower than the IEP.

Anionic tracers are negatively charged at pH >5

Cationic tracers are positively charged at pH <10

BSA tracers are intended for tracking fine capillaries or connecting spaces in intact tissues.

Additional Information


For additional information please see the Aurion Immunogold Newsletter and Protocol sections